Nrrn STATES LOVETT EAMES, OF KALAMAZOO, MICHIGAN.
iiVlPROVED HYDRAULIC APPARATUS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 36,397, dated September 9, 1862.
.To @ZZ whom it may concern,.-
Be it known that I, Lovurr EAMus, of Kalamazoo, in the county of Kalamazoo and State of Mich i gan, have invented a new and Improved Hydraulic Apparatus 5 and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact dcscription thereof, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification, in which- Figure l is a diamctrical section through the entire machine, showing the several parts thereof in their relative positions when at rest. Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the water-chest and double valve, showing in red lines the position of the latter when firmly held up against its seats. Fig. 3 is a central section through the lower end of the pistonrod, the piston, and loaded valve, the latter being shown by the aid of red lines in a position closing the openings which are through the piston. Fig. 4 shows the top of the piston and the openings therethrough. Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical section through the center of the plunger on the upper end of the pistonrod. Fig. 6 is an enlarged top view of the water-chest, showing the induction orifices through its top plate.
Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the several figures.
rIhis invention relates to an automatic forcing apparatus which 'is intended for throwing water to great heights and for furnishing water to cities, towns, factories, &c., which may be situated above the level o'r source from which it is desired to obtain'thesupply, as will be hereinafter shown and described.
To enable those skilled in the art tomake and use my invention, I will proceed to describe its construction and operation.
A is a cylinder, which may be made of any suitable size found best adapted to the pur pose it is to serve.
C is the head of cylinder A; C', its neck; and D is an air globe or chamber having the usual discharge-pipe, D', common to most airchambers for forcepumps.
The bottom of cylinder Ain the present instance is hanged and bolted to a box, B, hav` ing astrainer, B', coveri ng its bottom, as shown spherical chamber, a, perpendicular tubes a' a a' a', and a central valve-space, b, as shown in Figs. l, 2, and 3, and this chest E is furnished with a collar, c, which projects ashort distance above the upper surface of the plate E of this chest. The loweredge of this collar c is beveled at c', thus forming a valve-seat for the upper plate, d, of the double valve F. This double valve F consists of two valveplates, d and d', secured to the eXtreme ends of a central stem, d2. The lower plate, d', is somewhat smaller in diameter than the upper plate, d. These two valve-plates d d are allowed to have a free perpendicular movement,
and they are kept in their proper places by the smoothed sides of4 tubes a a a a', for the upper plate, d, and the guide-pieces e e for the lower plate, d. Both valves d d close upward, and f is the seat for the lower plate, d.
The collar c, above referred to, has fitted within it a short cylinder, o, having an annular flange, c, projecting from its upper edge outward, which ange rests upon the upper edge of collar c, and thus supports the cylinder c2 within the collar c, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The cylinder cz projects down below the valve-seat c of the upper valve-plate, d, and this cylinder is allowed to have afree upand-down play within its collar c, provision being made to prevent cylinder c2 from getting out of the collar c, as shown in Figs. l and 2.
Now it will be seen that just before the upper plate, d, of the double valve F takes its seat this plate will come in contact with the lowermost edge of cylinder ci and will necessarily lift this cylinder and keep it up as long as the double valve is seated. When this double valve F is thus seated, any pressure upon the cylinder c2 which will overcome that which keeps the double valve to its seat will start the double valve downward. Now, the movable cylinder c2 may be dispensed with,if desirable, and the same object effected-wiz., to start the double valve--without this cylinder. This l are in the Jositions shown in Fi 1. Above through the pistou J, as willl be hereinafter.
shown. Between valvevplate H and the fixed plate ca'may be interposed washers i for regulating by their thickness'the up-and-down movement of this loaded valve-plate on the hollow rod G.
J is the piston, which is perforated at j j j for allowing the spent water to pass from beneath above this piston, as indicated b y the arrows inFig; l of the drawings. Piston J is rigidly secured to the rod G, and it is suitably packed around its circumference, so as to work up and down freely within the upright cylinder A. The oriiicesy` j through piston J are closed by the valve-plate H during the full upward stroke of this piston, as will be further described in the operation of the machine.
The depression which is shown in the center of the piston J in Figs. 1 and 3 is intended to receive the corresponding elevation in the center of the loaded valve H, so that a water-cushion will thus be formed, which will prevent the piston J from injury or concussion whennthe plate H is brought to its seat immediately before the upward stroke of the piston. Asimilar cushion will be formed between the lower plate, d', of the double valve F and the concave bottom of chamber a, to prevent the double valve from injury when it drops from its seats, as shown in Figs. l and `2. y On the upper end of the hollow rod G is a plunger, g, which is suitably packed to Work tightly within the iiXed barrel' g'. Plunger g is hollow or cupshaped, and over the hole throughthe, neck of this plunger is seated a valve, k, which valve opens upward and forms, when open, a communication between the barrel g above the plunger and the cylinder A below the plunger,through orifices s s. Valve 7c is raised from its seat by means of the eXtension-jointed levers Z Z, (shown lin Figs. 1 and 5,) the upper ends of which come in contact with the under surface of cap m of barrel g at the proper time to remove the downward pressure from the plunger g for allowing the piston J to descend. The cap m on the upper end of barrel g has an orifice through it,which forms a communication between the air-chamber D and this `barrel g', andthis orifice is closed by a valve, n, which opens upward into air-chamber D. The stem of valve n is suitably guided and kept in -its proper position' by a bridgecap, p, on the top of the pump'barrel. The communication between the barrel g above the plunger g and the inside of cylinder A is formed by means of the openings s s, above referred to, and these openings are made through the neck of plunger g, just below the valve 7c, as shown in- Figs. 1 and 5 of the drawings, and the water rushes through these oriiices .s s to fill the barrel g above the plunger g during the downstroke of the plunger, asy will be further explained vin the operation of the apparatus.
K is a rod, which is attached by a hook or otherwise to the projecting eye s on the double valve F, as-shown in Figs. 1 and 2. This rod extends up through the axis of hollow rod G a sufficient distance, (as will be hereinafter fully'` eXplained,) and hasa button-head or enlargement, t, formed on its upper end, against which head a shoulder, at '0, Figs. 1 and 3,
d dfltoward their respective seats cf, at which moment the valve 7.a is raised and `the downward pressure upon the pistou J is cutoff by the closing of valve n. The valve-plates of the double valve F now fully close in consevquence of the great outward pressure upon them, and the piston J is now allowed to descend to the position shown in Fig. 1 in black lines.
The overplus or spent water which changes places from the lower to the upper side of the piston J in the descent of thepiston, and that portion of `water which does not pass intothe barrel g', is allowed to escape through the cap C of cylinder A at a point or points above the terminus of the upper stroke of the piston, and this waste water may be conducted oft by means of a Siphon-shaped pipe, as shown in red lines, Fig. 1, or Vin any other manner adapted to the best mode of putting up and arranging the apparatus to receive the head of water.`
The mode of regulating the supply of air to the air-chamber D is represented in Fig. 1. It consists of a delicatelyconstructed air-` cock, T, of any suitable kind, which is tapped through thebarrel g at a pointwhich is above the plunger g when this plunger has attained its lowest downward stroke. The air, when let into the barrel g at such a point, will be forced into the air-chamber D by the piston g.
The operation of my machine is asfollows: The machine being properly located, so that a head of water can be made to act upon it, the water is conducted in any suitable manner into the box B through the strainer B,from whence it will rush through the spaces between the tubes a a a a of the boX E, and a portion of water will pass down intothe'com` partment a and up through the tubes a a a.' a', while a portion will pass into the central chamber, b, above the upper valve-plate, d, of the double valve F. The water which passes through chamber a and tubes c a a a will instantly throw up the lloaded valve H and close the valve-openings through the piston, asindicatedin red lines, Fig. 2. Subsequently,` however, to the closing of valve H water is al-v lowed to ilo'win small quantities through the pistonV J 5 `but when the water has attained its full force the valve H is started toward the piston J, and this valvesuddenly checks the iiow `of water through the piston, as above described, and causes the iull force of the head of water to act in moving the' piston upward. Again, as soon as the pistonJ has started, in consequence of the operation just described, the plate C3 rises, and allows the water to rush directly up through the central opening also, so that We now have a full head of water operating to move the piston J, with its loaded valve H, upward. The water is now rushing over as well as under the upper valve, d, and also over the lower valve, d', as indicated by the course of the red arrows in Figs. l, 2, and 6 of the drawings. The piston J is in this manner forcedup to the position indicated in red lines, Fig. 1; but at a proper time, before the piston J reaches this point, the terminus of its stroke, the shoulder c comes in contact with the head t on rod K and carries up this rod, together with the double valve F, thus gradually cutting off the flow of water into the cylinder A through the double-valve openings. When the doublevalve plat-es d d have nearly closed their respective inductionoriiices, the plungerg of the pump will have moved up to the position indicated in red lines in Fig. 1L The upper ends of the extension levers U will come in contact with the cap m, which will compress these levers and raise the valve lc in the top of plunger g. This operation will instantly give a preponderance to the upward pressure of the head of water, which will instantly close and seat the doublevalve plates d el', and thus cut od' the head of water. Valve H will now drop so as to open the ports in the piston J, and both valve and piston will descend,allowing the water which was below the piston to pass above it through the portsjjj in the piston J. It is now desired t'o open the double valve to let on the head of water again. This can be done by means of the short sliding cylinder c2, as before described, or by making the plate c3 small enough to enter the space formed by the collar c a short distance, and thus cause the weight of piston J and valve H to operate, through the medium of Water confined in this chamber upon the valve-plate d, to start the valves d d from their seats; but in the former instance the plate c3 pressessuddenly upon the cylinder c2, and this cylinder is made to serve as a medium through which the weight and concussion of the descending piston J and valve H are brought to act upon the double valve.
As soon as the double valve F is started from its seats, the inllux of water into chambers a and b will, together withthe weight of the double valve itself and the neutralizing effect of the chamber now formed over plate d, cause this double valve to drop to the position represented in Figs. l and 2 of the drawings in black lines.
We have now made two strokes of the piston, described the manner of introducing, regulating, and cutting off the head or supply of Water to the pistonJ of the apparatusbelow the pump proper. It will be seen that when the piston J descends and carries down with it the plunger g of the pump the valve n will be closed and a vacuum will thus be formed in the pump-barrel g, which will be instantly filled with water from the cylinder A through the orifices S S and the opening of valve 7c, and thus at every downward stroke of the piston J and plunger g water will be injected into the pump-barrel g', to be forced into the air-chamberD through the opening which is closed by the valve n at the succeeding upward stroke of the piston and plunger g. At the neXt upward stroke of the piston J, to continue with the operation of the apparatus, the water which is now above the plunger will be forced into the air-chamber D, and water from cylinder A will also follow the plunger up. "When the piston (and plunger) has reached (nearly) its highest point and the supply of Water is nearly cut off in consequenceof the double valve F approaching its seats, as before described, the upper ends of the eXtension-jointsl Zwill come in contact with the lcap m of the pump-barrel, lift and open the valve la in the plungerg, and cause the valve a, leading to air-chamber D, to instantly shut, thus removing all resistance to the further rise of the plunger and piston J and allowing. the force under the piston to give it a sudden upward start, which carries the double supply-valve F firmly to its seats and allows the loaded valveH to separate from its seat of its own gravity, thus again initiat ing the change of motion.
There is a chamber, b, formed above the top plate, d, of double valve F, when the parts are in the positions represented in Fig. l, which chamber has for its bottom the plate Zand for its top the plate c3, both of which plates are capable of being separated from their places. This chamber serves some veryimportant purposes in the operation of the apparatus, as will be now described. When the plate c3 drops upon the top of this chamber b and closes t-he upper opening, it isfirst received b by the water which is above the plate d, and thus as'the piston J drops down the water in chamber b will serve as a cushion and prevent.
any concussion. Then, again, when this platev c3, with the piston J and loaded valve H, all dropor press suddenly upon the water in chamber bthe double valve F willy be started from its seats, as before described, and a certain quantity of Water from the supply will pass over the upper plate, d, and impinge on the underside of plate c3, not sufficiently strong at first to lift this plate, but the water, which will now rush unobstructedly through the opening of the lower valve, d', will pass up through the tubes a a a c' into the cylinder A, and while the double valve F is dropping the water which has thus passed into the cyl-` inder A will close the valve H under the ports j j to allow the piston to start upward with the force of the full head of water.
The opening G2, which is made through the cap of cylinder A, is intended for the escape of the waste water. rlhe cap C may have a number of these openings through it, as many as it will be found necessary for allowing the waste water to escape freely above the piston.
' Should it be found desirable and circumstances permit, pure Water may be supplied to the pump of my apparatus, While the piston below the pump may be operated and made to operate the pump with impure Water. The mannner of accomplishing this is not shown in the drawings, and it is only one of the incidental advantages attending my improved hydraulic apparatus. u
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. The pistou J, working inan upright cylinder, A, and so constructed that it will be acted upon in its upward stroke by the force of a head of water and then allowed to descend by virtue of its own gravity when the head is cut oft, substantially as herein set forth.
2. The water'chcst or divisional Water-boX E, arranged below the main piston J at the bottom of the body of the machine,'and furnished with a double disk-valve, F, valveseats f and c', and eduction-chambers, substantially as herein set forth.
3. Controlling and regulating the passage of the spent Water below the piston through said piston by meansof a loaded plate-valve,- H, or its equivalent, substantially as herein set forth. i p
4. Cutting off the pressure under the piston and its loaded valve at the instant the water has exerted its maximum force upon the piston, by means substantially as herein set forth.
-5. Arranging above the piston J a forcef pump when this pump receives its power from, is connected to, and operates in combination with the mechanism in the body of the machine, substantially as herein shown.
6. The central equalizing-chamber, which is immediately above the double valve F, for regulating the flow ofwater to the piston J' at the commencement of its upward stroke, substantially as herein set forth. i
7. Tripping the valve k by means ofthe extension-jointed levers Z Z, or their equivalents, as herein set forth.
8. Cutting oi` the supply `of water to the chamber A previously to the tripping of valve k by means of rod K and double valve F, so that the double Valve F can `be driven rmly to its seats by the force of the head of water,